Phytoplankton, or microalgae, usually blooms only once a year in the Arctic. Now it is blooming in the fall too. Phytoplankton is plant based and uses carbon dioxide in its photosynthesis. The Antarctic South Sea is also absorbing more carbon dioxide than previously thought. According to NASA, carbon dioxide is a moving, long term force in climate change. This new information about the Polar regions absorbing more carbon dioxide brings a new element in the challenges of climate change.